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  • Tên sách : Studies in the origins of Buddhism
  • Tác giả : Govind Chandra Pande
  • Dịch giả :
  • Ngôn ngữ : Anh
  • Số trang : 600
  • Nhà xuất bản : Published by the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology University of Allahabad
  • Năm xuất bản : 1957
  • Phân loại : Sách tiếng Anh-English
  • MCB : 12100000002765
  • OPAC :
  • Tóm tắt :





University of Allahabad

Department Of Ancient History



                    UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD



Published by the Department of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology University of Allahabad


Printed by P. L. Yadava at The Indian Press Private Ltd.. Allahabad,



Much has been written on early Buddhism and yet the need of a fresh study of the subject can hardly be gainsaid. Mrs. Rhys Davids has raised the all-important question: what was the original message of Buddhism? This pointed query has rudely disturbed the almos settled composure of Buddhist scholarship. As soon as it is admitted that the original mandate of Buddhism might have been something different from what it is tradition­ally reported to have been—and tradition is not unani­mous—we are forced to adopt a more critical, a more historical outlook towards our texts; and the adoption of this New Approach, of which Mrs. Rhys Davids has been the pioneer, at once necessitates a re-study of the problems of Buddhist origins.

At the very outset we have to realize that even the earliest available collections within the Buddhist canon are of uncertain date and heterogeneous contents. Mrs. Rhys Davids has drawn attention to the fact that the Nikayas do not preach a uniform set of doctrines. It will be seen that they contain within themselves the seeds of multiform growth. From what we know about the  Chinese Agamas it appears safe to draw a similar general conclusion about them. A historical approach to an­cient Buddhism, therefore, most certainly entails the stratification of the Nikayas and the Agamas. The task is attempted with reference to the Nikayas in Chapters I-VII.

There is, again, an additional reason for a fresh study of the subject. The discoveries in the Indus Valley have revolutionized our perspective of the foun-clations of Indian religion and culture. They have shown that a civilized non-Vedic culture once existed in prehistoric India. This invalidates the common assumption that all higher thought in India existing before Buddha must necessarily have had a Vedic origin. In fact, civilization in India, as elsewhere, has -been, a composite creation. Numerous races and cultural com­munities have met and struggled and mingled in the long history of Indian culture which has progressed through the synthesis of diverse conflicts. It seems desirable to review from this standpoint the development ol Vedic religion and culture and of the social and intel­lectual tendencies of the Age of Buddha and Mahavira. The task is here attempted principally in Chapters VIII-IX.

Although a great deal has been written on the life of Buddha, it still remains a desideratum to correlate his life and quest, experience and mission, with his teach­ings. This task is attempted in Chapter X.

There has been much controversy over the “correct” interpretation of such points of Buddhist doctrine as Pratityasamutpada and Nirvana. Now the ancient canonical texts are themselves not quite agreed on these points, which is intelligible enough since the texts in question are spread over a considerable period of time. The “original gospel” assumed various forms in the course of its development and was soon grown over by them to the point of obscurity. It appears that unless the ancient Buddhist ideas are analysed clearly with reference to their historical or genetic relationship it will hardly be possible to trace firmly their original foundations. This task is attempted in Chapters XI— XIII.

The last two chapters attempt a brief analysis of certain historical problems arising out of the early deve­lopment of Buddhism.

The present work is, thus, designed to consist of a group of organically connected historical studies relating to the origins of Buddhism. It is the doctrinal rather than the institutional aspect of Buddhism that is mainly considered.  The subject-matter is for the greater part of a literary and religio-philosophic character, but the treatment is intended to be primarily historical.

The approach has been mainly through the Indian sources of Buddhism. Chinese and Tibetan sources have also been utilized as far as possible, though not from the original languages. The present work is substantial­ly identical with a thesis of the same title which was ap­proved in the University of Allahabad for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1947. The arrangement of material has been altered, and necessary modifications have been made in the light of subsequent study and reflection.

My deepest debt is to Pt. K. Chattopadhyaya, Read­er in Sanskrit, University of Allahabad, who supervised my research work and has guided me all along. I am profoundly grateful to the authorities of the University of Allahabad viz., Sri B. N. Jha, Vice-Chancellor, Dr. B. R. Saksena, D.Litt., Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Sri K. L. Govil, Registrar, Dr. B. P. Saksena, Ph.D., Profes­sor of History, and Sri G. R. Sharma, Head of the Depart­ment of Ancient History, Culture and Archaeology, who have made the publication of the present work possible.

It is regretted that owing to haste some misprints, which mostly do not affect the- sense, have escaped proof­reading. Except for some obvious omissions of diacri-tical and punctuation marks, these have, however, been indicated in the list of errata at the end.

I am thankful to Sri Brij Nath Singh Yadav, M.A., D.Phil., for his help in the preparation of the Index. I am also thankful to Sri H. P. Ghosh, Manager, Indian Press, and Sri K. P. Dar, Press Manager, for their help­ful co-operation in the printing of the present work.

G. C. Pande








I. The Buddhist Canon and Its Chronology

The Abhidharma and its versions; The Vinaya and its versions; The Nikâyas and the Âgamas; The chronology of the canon, esp., of the Nikâyas.

II. The Stratification of the Nikâyas: Prob­lems and Methods

Critical résumé of previous work; The criteria of stratification; The state of doctrinal evolution; Interpolation; Voca­bulary and other linguistic features; Geo­graphy; Political and Social data; Prose and verse.

III.        The Stratification of Suttanipâta, ITIvut-

taka and Udâna

Suttanipâta: Chinese evidence; The Atthaka- vagga; The Pàrâyana-vagga; The Mahâ- vagga; Conclusion. Itivuttaka: Chinese version; The various Nipâtas; Conclusion; Udâna: Prose and verse; The various Vaggas; Conclusion.

IV.        Early and Late in the Dîgha-Nikâya

Early and late in Dirghâgama and Digha- nikàya; Analysis of the Suttas; Conclu­sion.

V. Early and Late in the Majjhima-Nikâya ..

The grouping and order of the Suttas; Clas­sification and analysis of the Suttas; Con­clusion.

VI. Early and Late in the Samyutta-N ikâya ..

Samyutta-nikàya and Samyuktàgama; Analysis; Conclusion.

Chapter        P

V.          Early and Late in the Anguttara-Nikaya ..

Anguttara-nikaya and the Ekottaragama; Form and Style; Partial stratification.



VI.        Review of the Vedic Background

The significance of Pre-Vedic Civilisation; Munis and Sramanas in the Vedic Age; The development of Vedic society; Gods and men; Ritual and its development; Brahmana Eschatology and Transmigra­tion; Moral revolution; The growth of Self-knowledge; Yoga; The origins of Sankhya.

VII.      Religious Conditions in the Age of Buddha

Social being and social consciousness; Social change in the Age of Buddha. The Brahmanas and their religion; Popular religion; The rise of asceticism; Intel­lectual ferment; Early Jaina faith.

VIII.    The Life of Buddha            ..

Sources; Early life and circumstances; Re­nouncing the world; The Noble Quest and Enlightenment; The spread of Bud­dha’s doctrine; Buddha’s personality.



IX.        Suffering and its Origin

The Noble Truths; Suffering and its place in Buddha's teachings; The origin of Suffering; The interpretations of Pratitya- samutpada; The two aspects of Pratitya- samutpada; The general principle; The Middle Way; Pratityasamutpada; The applied form; The development of for­mula.

XII. Nirvana

The interpretations of Nirvana—ancient and modem; The problem of Nirvana; Sam-bodhi and Nirvana; The meaning and significance of Dhartna; Nirvana and Pra- tityasamutpada; The nature of Nirvana; The problem of Self; Historical analysis of the Nikâyic data; Buddha’s Silence; Con­clusion.

XIII. The Way to  Nirvana            

The Way and the Truth; The Buddhist

Wav and the Upanisads; Sila—Samadhi— Prajna; Bodhipakkhiyadhammas; Moral culture; Concentration and meditation; Stages of spiritual progress.

XIV. Early Buddhism in Relation to its Rivals

and Forerunners

Jainism; Sáñkhya; Yoga; The Vedic tra­dition.

XV. Some Trends in the Post-Nikaya Develop­ment of Early Buddhism           

The origin of schism; The sects; The chief controversies and lines of develop­ment.

Appendix 1—Early Jain a Sources

Appendix II—The Home of Pali

Appendix III—On the Maitrayaniya Upa-


Abbreviations and Bibliography



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