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  • Tên sách : Development Of Moral Philosophy In India
  • Tác giả : Surama Dasgupta
  • Dịch giả :
  • Ngôn ngữ : Anh
  • Số trang : 229
  • Nhà xuất bản : Orient Longmans LONDON
  • Năm xuất bản : 1961
  • Phân loại : Sách tiếng Anh-English
  • MCB : 1210000004953
  • OPAC :
  • Tóm tắt :


          The book was written several years ago under close personal supervision of the late Professor Surendra Nath Dasgupta while he was the principal, Sanskrit College, Calcutta. The late Professor as is well-known from his works to many, had always placed before himself and those whom he guided in their research, a standard of his own. It was his opinion that any work to have some worth should be so exhaustive and complete in its treatment of the subject that it would not require the labour of anyone else for the completion of the investigation already undertaken. India has a cultural history extending over four to five thousand years and as such any investigation in a particular branch of study has to be a very painstaking one which easily spreads over several years. So with the kind assistance and supervision of the late Professor, the work undertaken by me required a number of years for its completion. The book entitled originally “Good, Evil and Beyond” extended over 842 pages in typescript. Later on the Ph. D. degree of the Calcutta University (equivalent to its D. Litt. degree by the present revised standard) was awarded to me on the merit of the work.

         The war started in 1939 and even long after it was over, conditions for publication of books were very difficult both in India and England. From 194Ỉ to 1930 we stayed in England but we could only see through the press the fourth volume of the late Professor’s A History of Indian Philosophy. We came back to India in 1930 and in 1932 Professor Dasgupta passed away while working on the fifth volume of his History.

       All our life we never made any distinction between the researches undertaken by ourselves and worked together on almost every subject that interested both or either of us. After the demise of my husband, I had to take over the task of editing, completing and arranging to publish his unpublished works complete or incomplete. Naturally therefore, I could not turn my attention to the publication of my own books. Publication expenses and difficulties being as hard as ever, the present work had to be revised and reduced further and further till I could bring it to its present size. This means that I had to leave out much important materials which may later on constitute another volume. I had also to leave out the Sanskrit and Pãli quotations indicating only the references. Should there be any suitable opportunity for reprinting the book, all these may be re-introduced and the unpublished materials Incorporated. The texts that were used in the writing of the book belong to different periods of India’s cultural history and some of these had to be brought to Calcutta from outside for the completion of the work. A number of these texts was not available at the time of its publication. Situated as I was far away from the facilities available at the Calcutta libraries, this difficulty could not be solved. References from the books mentioned below could not be re-checked owing to this difficulty; other references have all been duly checked. The following books were not available at the time of revising the proofs:

  1. Advaitasiddhi. 2. AstasShasri. 3. Bhaktirasãmrta-sindhu.
  2. Bodhi- sattvabhũmi. Vol. II. 5. Chãyãvyãkhyã of Nagesa.
  3. Mahãkarma-vibhanga 7. Prabhã commentary of Narasimha Pandita on the Siddhăntamuktăvalì. 8. Ratnãkarãvatãra. 9. Sthãnãnga-sũtra.
  4. Vijnãnãmrta-bhạsya. 11. Visesã-vasyaka-bhãsya with its commentary.
  5. Vyãkhyã of Yasomitra. Vol. II.

         For the study of the large number of texts in Sanskrit and Pali, published and unpublished, and their interpretation in connection with the present work, I am under a very heavy debt of obligation to my husband, the late Professor Surendra Nath Dasgupta. Had it not been for his constant help, guidance and encouragement, the work could not have been completed by myself alone. The introduction to the book, which is fairly comprehensive since it gives an outline of the different views of the various systems covering different areas of the history of Indian culture, was written at the kind suggestion of the late Professor F. W. Thomas of Oxford University, for the convenience of readers. The concluding chapter gives a critical evaluation of the basic assumptions of Indian thought.

          India is particularly known for its sacred tradition of scholarship and knowledge, a spiritual heritage which passed from teacher to pupil through long generations. It is for the advancement of knowledge and wisdom that the ancient savants of India had dedicated their live in the past. With reverence for such wisdom, I present this book to the modern reader so that some communication with the past, which was always full and rich with intellectual investigations, may be fruitfully revived. As regards thoughts and ideas, I do not think that there can be any limit of time, any demarcation such as past and present, ancient and modern or any geographical limitations. Whatever is ancient was also fresh and new and can ever be of great help as some of the ideas presented by modern thinkers may be. Human thoughts and values are ageless and may be true for all time only with perhaps some modifications due to the prevailing situation in a country. Moral philosophy in India in its practical bearing on life is one such basic thought which holds good for all people of all ages and the message of India, therefore, can be placed forward to those who feel interested in such a quest.

        It may be of some interest to the readers to know that the present work, by a woman author, has been printed perhaps for the first time in India, in a Press run by a woman pupil of hers. My sincerest gratefulness and best wishes go to Dr. A. K. Gayen, a devoted young friend of both my husband and myself and his wife, Shrimati Krishna Gayen M. A., one time my pupil and a dear friend for ever. It is through their active co-operation and enthusiasm that the publication of the book has been possible.

       I am grateful to Mr. Tara Singh, the Deputy Librarian and Mr. S. D. Sharma M. A., of the Lucknow University Tagore Library, for their kind assistance in lending me books liberally for the correction of references.

       I beg the forgiveness of readers for any printing mistakes that might remain.

          University of Lucknow

          Lucknow, India                                           SURAMA DASGUPTA

         December 18, 1960


Chapter I—Introduction:

Religion Philosophy and Morality

Standard in the Vedic Samhitã

Standard in the Upanisads

Standard in the Sutras and the Smrtis

The Inscriptions of Asoka

Standard in the Mahabhãrata

Standard of Conduct in the Ayurveda

Standard of Conduct in the Materialistic School of Thought

Standard in the Different Philosophical Systems

Ethics and Mechanism of Action

The Doctrine of Grace

Chapter II—The Vedas:

Concept of the Good and Future

Existence as related with it

Virtues and Vices

Dina or Offering of Gifts

Sins and their Expiation

Chapter III—The Upaaisads:

The Upanisads

Forms of Karma, Good and Evil, Tapas and Substitution-Meditation

The Tapas

Chapter IV—The Mimamsa:

The Self

Prabhakara’s Conception of Self and Knowledge

The Dharma

Self-Validity of Knowledge

Intermediary between the Sacrifice and its Effect

An Analysis of the Imperative Nature of a Vedic Mandate

Chapter V—The Smrtis:

The Authority of the Smftis

Validity of the Practices (Ãcãra) of Good Men

Karmaphala in the Manu-samhita

Expiation (prayascitta)

The General Duties, the Caste Duties and the Asrama Duties

The Last Three Stages of Life

The Smrti view of Merits and Demerits and their Transference

Chapter VI—The Gits and the Pancaritras:

The Gĩtã

The Pancaratras and the Path of Bhakti

Chapter VII—Vedanta:

Knowledge and Karma according to Sankara, Bhaskara, Ramanuja and Vijnanabhiksu

The Means of Emancipation according to Sankara

Brahma-Knowledge (the highest good) and the Cessation of Avidyã According to Citsukha,

Madhusũdana and Vimuktatman

Chapter VIII—The Simkhya-Yoga:

The Sãmkhya-Yoga

The Sãmkhya-Yoga Ethics

Classification of Actions: Its Principle

Vãsanã and Samskãra

The Klesas as the Root Cause of all Actions

The Means to Emancipation

Chapter IX—Nyiya and Vaisesika:

Nyaya and Vaisesika: Preliminary remarks

Nature of Emancipation

Attainment of Liberation

The Agent

Karma and its Results

How a Karma Produces its Results

False Knowledge and its Removal

Motivation of Action

Nyaya view of Volition as distinguished from the Prabhakara School of Thought

Chapter X—Buddhism:

Buddhism (Preliminary)

The Doctrine of Karma according to the Pali Texts

Scepticism regarding Karma and Rebirth and its Refutation in Pali Texts

Historical Introduction to the Abhidharmakosa

General Principles of the Philosophy of the Abhidharmakosa

The Agent

Chapter XI—Buddhism (Continued):

Karma as Vijnapti and Avijnapti

Diverse Considerations about Karma and Karmapatha, Path of Acts

The Philosophy of Karma in the MahSkarma-vibhanga

Chapter XII—Buddhism (Continued):

The Path of the Bodhisattva

The Career of the Bodhisattva

The Pãramitãs


Jhna or Dhyana (Meditation)

Chapter XIII—The Jaiaa System of Thought:

The Jaina System of Thought

The Jaina Categories

The Jiva

Classification of Selves (Jiva)

Ajiva (Matter)

Punya and Papa (Good and Evil)

Free Will and Determinism

Virtue and Vice and the Value of Actions

Ãsrava (Passions)

Bandha (Bondage)

Sam vara (Control)

Nirjara (Release)

Moksa (Liberation)

Yoga and Other Virtues

Chapter XIV—Conclusion:


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