Tìm Sách

Sách tiếng Anh-English >> Buddhist Monks & Monasteries of India

Xem tại thư viện

Thông tin tra cứu

  • Tên sách : Buddhist Monks & Monasteries of India
  • Tác giả : Sukumar Dutt
  • Dịch giả :
  • Ngôn ngữ : Anh
  • Số trang : 387
  • Nhà xuất bản : New Delhi
  • Năm xuất bản : 1960
  • Phân loại : Sách tiếng Anh-English
  • MCB : 1210000002822
  • OPAC :
  • Tóm tắt :


        The SANGHA (Buddhist Monkhood) has received hitherto far less than its due measure of importance in extant studies on Buddhism. The Sangha originated in India: its history in this country, where Buddhism is now extinct as an institutional religion, is the history of the growth, progress and organization of a great culture that is interwoven in its historic culture-complex.

        A sketch of primitive Sangha life and organization was attempted by me in my youth in the book, Early Buddhist Monachism, pub­lished in Trubner’s Oriental Series, so far back as in 1924. In the preface to its recently published Indian edition (Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1960), I have called attention to its inevitable lack and limitation:

        ‘The book presents a picture in outline of the Buddhist Monastic Order in its growth and development during the first three or four centuries of Buddhism. The need remains yet for a longer dynamic view and more extended historical perspective, for the Buddhist Sanghas, whose early evolution is the theme of this book, continued to function in this country, especially in the east and the south, for many more after-centuries. The great monastic universities in the east like Nãlandã, Vikramsilã, Odantapura and Jagaddala represent the last fine efflorescence of Buddhist monachism, and they were wiped out only towards the close of the twelfth century by the fanatic violence of the Muslim invaders of Bengal and Bihar.

        The object of the present work is to supply this ‘longer dynamic view and more extended historical perspective’.

        The work has entailed concentrated research work over two and a half years and could not have been undertaken but for the generous encouragement and active support of Dr Malalasekera, renowned Buddhist scholar of Ceylon, recently ambassador for his country in Moscow. It was through his initiative that a Senior Research Fellowship of the University of Delhi was awarded to me enabling me to carry through this work and also making available to me the ripe scholarship of Professor P. V. Bapat, then Head of the Department of Buddhist Studies in the University. His suggestions and corrections, supplemented by Dr V. V. Gokhale’s, were very helpful for which I remain grateful.

       My source-materials come under two main categories—literary and archaeological.

        The literary materials had to be gathered from four language Sanskrit, Pali, Chinese and Tibetan. For helping me in the last two, I am indebted to Miss Latika Lahiri of Lady Irwin School, New Delhi, who studied Chinese for several years in Peking and provided me with translations from Chinese, and to Dr Lokesh Chandra and Lama Chimpa of the International Academy of Indian Culture, New Delhi, for translations from Tibetan.

         For the archaeological materials, I had not only to investigate the reports and memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, but also to make extensive field-studies of archaeological sites where monastic caves and remains of ancient monasteries still exist. In describing or tracing the history of the monasteries, I have had in several instances to draw upon my own personal knowledge gathered on the spot. I am grateful to the officers of the Archaeo­logical Department, especially to Mr Ghosh, Dfrector-General, and Dr Patil, Deputy Director-General, for providing me with liberal facilities for my field-study as well as for a sheaf of useful photo­graphs. Dr Moreswar Dikshit (now working in the Madhya Pradesh) was kind and generous enough to lend me an unpublished work of his and allow me to draw from it some materials for which acknow­ledgement been made in the book in due place.

         I am indebted also to my talented daughter, Miss Krishna Dutt, MSC, for the preparation of the Index, a task of great labour willingly shouldered by her, and to Mr Indra Varma for the maps and sketches included.

         In writing this book, it was not the scholar and specialist that I had exclusively in view. The subject is likely to interest today the educated public in our country. Curiosity about our ancient Buddhist past is now more widely diffused. Visitors by hundreds who go to see the famous monastic caves of western India, Ajanta, Kanheri, Pandulena, Karle, etc. and the monastic remains of northern India at Nãlandã, Sãmãth, Sãnchi, Rajgir and other sites will derive a new zest from some knowledge of their historical background and some idea of the part these monasteries played in our ancient life and culture.

         A reconstruction of the history of the Buddhist Sangha in India has, so far as I am aware, not been attempted yet. I have had to break new ground which seemed at places nearly intractable for the lack of reliable historical data. If those scholars to whose critical judgement I must leave this work be in a position to say that this humble attempt at historical reconstruction has been worthwhile, I shall deem my labours amply repaid.

         New Delhi

         June 30, 1960                                             SUKUMAR DUTT





PART I: THE PRIMITIVE SANGHA (500-300 BC) Origin, Development and Organization

  1. ‘Wandering Almsmen’ in the Upanisads
  2. The BHIKKHU-SANGHA as a Sect among the Wanderers
  3. From Wandering to Settled Life
  4. Early Monk-settlements—ÃVÃSAS and ÃRÃMAS
  5. Sangha Life and its Organization in Early Settlements
  6. The Rise of Monasteries (LENAS)


  1. Monks of the ‘Eastern Tract
  2. Asoka and Moggaliputta Tissa
  3. Early Buddhist Culture and its Trans-Vindhyan Expansion
  4. An Aftermath of Sãtavăhana Culture—NÃGÃRJUNÃKONDA
  5. Cave-Monasteries (LEILAS) of Western India


  1. Sangha Life in Transition
  2. The VINAYA: its After-history
  3. BHAKTI in Later Buddhism
  4. Monasteries under the Gupta Kings
  5. The Devastation
  6. Survey of Monastic Remains of Northern India
  7. The Maitraka Monasteries of Valahhi


  1. Sources of Information
  2. The Hĩnayãna (Theravãda) Tradition of Textual Scholarship
  3. The Mahãyãna and its Scholastic Tradition
  4. The ÃCÃRYAS and Mahãydnist Literature Re-interpretation of the Hĩnaydna
  5. The ÃCÃRYAS
  6. Contemporaries and Near-contemporaries of Hsilan-tsang and I-tsing
  7. Indian Monk-scholars in China

APPENDIX—On I-tsing’s ‘Account of Fifty-one Monks’     


  1. From ‘Study for Faith’ to ‘Study for Knowledge’
  2. Mahãvihãras that functioned as Universities The University of Nãlandã
  3. The Pãla Establishments

APPENDIX I—On the Order of Succession and approximate Regnal Years of kings of the Pala Dynasty



APPENDIX II—Tibetan Cultural Missions to India described in Brom-toris ‘Life of Atisa’





Các sách khác thuộc Sách tiếng Anh-English

A Sanskrit Reader
A Sanskrit Reader
Crossing The Stream
Crossing The Stream
Buddhism In A Nutshell
Buddhism In A Nutshell
Buddhist India
Buddhist India
History of Buddhism In India
History of Buddhism In India
Concept & Meaning
Concept & Meaning
The Nava-Nalanda-Mahavihara Research Publication Vol. I
The Nava-Nalanda-Mahavihara Research Publication Vol. I
Buddhist Essays & Reviews
Buddhist Essays & Reviews
The Spirit of Asoka
The Spirit of Asoka
Going Forth
Going Forth
Mangala College
Mangala College